✨ Academic Writing in English - "And" Alternatives ✨

icon-time 23 October 2018
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Academic writing in English is almost like a different dialect. There are lots of terms and phases you see in academic writing quite often, that you rarely hear in conversational English. This is because there is a tendency to try to avoid using the same words and phrases over and over in English, but the structured nature of academic writing often means that you are presenting argument after argument in a similar way; so you have to know lots of different ways of saying the same thing!

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Students sometimes make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some alternatives words and phrases you can use to add supporting information. Be careful to only to use these for points that relate to the previous point, though. Don't just start every paragraph with one of these!


1. Moreover

Usage: Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making.

Example: “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”


2. Furthermore

Usage: This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.

Example: “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”


3. What’s more

Usage: This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”.

Example: “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”


4. Likewise

Usage: Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned.

Example: “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”


5. Similarly

Usage: Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”.

Example: “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”


6. Another key thing to remember

Usage: Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”.

Example: “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”


7. As well as

Usage: Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”.

Example: “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”


8. Not only… but also

Usage: This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information.

Example: “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”


9. Coupled with

Usage: Used when considering two or more arguments at a time.

Example: “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”


10. Firstly, secondly, thirdly…

Usage: This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other.

Example: “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.